Lucid Dreaming: Induction, Individual Differences, and Benefits

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Lucid dreaming is a dream phenomenon in which the dreamer is fully aware he or she is dreaming. It consists of a few distinct characteristics including having most if not all cognitive abilities, a strong sense of conscious awareness, and full memory of reality and previous dream experiences. Evidence of this is shown through Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep. In the REM stage of sleep, eye movements in reality correspond with eye movements in the dream state. For example, a participant in a study becomes lucid in a dream, and can make specific eye signals to researchers showing them the participant has entered a lucid dream state. Various techniques can be used to induce lucid dreaming, such as asking throughout the day “am I dreaming? ” in the hopes of asking that same question in a dream. Dream signs, such as teeth falling out, or text changing can serve as a signal that it is a dream, and can induce lucidity in dreamers. There are some individual differences that exist with lucid dreamers. It has been found that those with a high internal locus of control report have more frequent dream recall and lucidity; those with an external locus of control have just the opposite. The benefits of lucid dreaming are potentially vast, but recent research has focused primarily on reducing the frequency of nightmares in those who have frequent night terrors. It has also been shown to potentially lower emotional disturbances such as stress and anxiety if practiced properly.

Lucid Dreaming: Induction, Individual Differences, and Benefits

Defining Lucid Dreaming

Lucid dreaming can be simply defined as an altered dream state. It can also be called conscious dreaming or dreams of clarity, terms stemming from the psychiatrist Fredrik Willems van Eden in 1913 (Holzinger, 2009). More in depth, it can be described as complete awareness while dreaming, so aware that every aspect of the dream can be manipulated and influenced. All sensory input is still available in the dream, and dreamers can touch, feel, taste, see, hear, and smell (Carskadon, 1995). Not only those characteristics, but lucid dreamers can also reason and think clearly; dreamers know they are in this altered state and can do essentially anything they want. This could include anything from flying to walking on the moon. Tholey (1980) describes lucid dreams as having a certain number of specific characteristics: these include being fully aware of the dream, having memory of real life, having most or all cognitive sensory abilities intact, memory of previous lucid dreams, and a strong sense of conscious awareness. In some cases dreamers even report the dream seeming more real than reality itself.

Historically it is a relatively new concept, but Holzinger et al. (2008) notes that Tibetan Buddhists were the first to learn how to induce a similar dream state, by using specific induction techniques. They would use it as a form of meditation and for potentially new abstract experiences. Up until Freud and his theories on dreams would lucid dreaming begin to become a popular and studied subject. On a biological level, Holzinger (et al. 2006) discovered that activity in the left parietal lobe increased during lucid dreaming, an area of the brain related to self-awareness.

Today therapeutic uses for lucid dreaming are being widely studied as well as methods used to induce them. Benefits can range from the treatment of nightmares, or night terrors, to relieving stress in everyday life (Holzing et al. 2009). According to La Berge (1980), lucid dreaming may be difficult, but is indeed a skill that can be learned and applied through various methods. Schredel Erlachor(2004) reported that four out of every five people have reported having at least one lucid dream at some point in their life. How then if so many people report a lucid dream, along with those who can do it on demand while sleeping, can it be proven to exist?

Evidence of Lucid Dreaming

In 1978, Hearne conducted his famous experiment in which he recorded eye movements while a subject was sleeping, becoming the first to discover Rapid Eye

Movement (REM) sleep. This gave way to the first scientific evidence of lucid dreaming in 1988 as Piller (2009) notes that a group of researchers through an experiment discovered that while dreaming REM sleep corresponds with the eye movements the subject was making in their dream. They also discovered that breathing patterns and intensity was the same in the dream as in reality depending on the activity.

In another study, Erlacher Schredl (2004) conducted an experiment to determine whether or not cardiovascular exercise in a lucid dream had any physical cardiovascular correlates in reality. They had five participants who could consistently and reliably lucid dream and had them stay in a controlled environment sleep laboratory for 2-4 consecutive nights. While dreaming they were to perform a specific exercise while lucid, that exercise being squats. The participants were monitored while sleeping, and when they became lucid they were to give a specific eye command, in this case moving their eyes left to right a number of times, signaling to the researchers that they were going to begin performing the exercise. They would then begin performing the squats, ten repetitions, then do the specific eye signal, wait 25 seconds, then perform the exercise again, then stop giving the eye signal in each stage.

In conclusion of their study it was reported that physical exercise performed while lucid dreaming does moderately correlate with physical activity in waking life such as a

moderately increased heart rate.

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Categories: biology, psychology Tags:

Understanding Behavior Change, Action Planning, and Coping Planning: A Review of the Literature (Part 3)

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Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 24-33.

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Understanding Behavior Change, Action Planning, and Coping Planning: A Review of the Literature (Part 2)

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Urte et al. (2008) did an on-line study with 354 participants to test whether action and coping planning can be used to predict change in physical activity, and the maintenance of that activity. They found that they could predict behavior change using that model just as previous studies have shown.
One of the biggest problems with changing a behavior is maintaining it. Russel Bray(2010) state that up to 50% of participants in a cardiovascular program designed to improve their health drop out within the first few months, with up to 80% stopping completely after a year. Those numbers are startling, especially considering that using such a health program is not temporary, but should be considered a lifelong change. The fact that some can so easily quit a life changing intervention program can create a lot of problems for researchers developing such programs.
One such behavioral change theory is the self-determination theory. This theory organizes motivation into two categories. These are controlled and self-determined motivation. Controlled motivation can be described as a reward and punish system. Going to the gym, one would see the physical results it produces serving as a reward for exercising that day. On the other hand, having the time to go to the gym, but simply not going out of sheer laziness can serve as a psychological punishment. This type of motivation could also include praise from others, such as a music instructor or personal trainer. Self-determined motivation seems obvious, and indeed it is; this would be your own motivation coming from the self to promote whatever change it may be. For example, when changing a health behavior, such as going to the gym, one knows that it will improve their physical and mental health in a variety of ways, therefore motivating them internally to continue with that change. Russel Bray (2010), continue to state that for such motivating factors to be prevalent, and to avoid such mishaps as people dropping out of an exercise program, there must some environmental modification. They state that using principles such as social support or specific environmental conditions can significantly promote consistent and lifelong behavior changes.
On a different note, Webb, et al. (2009) did a study on using cognitive-behavioral therapy to help African-American smokers quit smoking. They mention that African-Americans in particular suffer from more frequent lung problems than do in comparison with other races, hence why their study involved that race. The cognitive behavior therapy used consisted of four main points: “coping skills training, problem focused coping, behavioral contracting, and relapse prevention strategies. ”
With this type of behavioral intervention, it focuses on convincing participants through self-motivation to help them cure themselves of a behavior, in this case smoking. Using this strategy they would be able to control smoking urges overtime, eventually being able to stop smoking entirely. Their control group was based off of general health education. The results showed that cognitive-behavioral interventions taught were still maintained after a 6 month follow up with 31% of participants as compared to 14% of participants in the control group, quite a significant difference. To conclude, there are a vast variety of behavioral changing interventions out, the previous examples are quite common interventions; yet there are many more which are continuously being researched and applied.
References
Armitage, C. (2009). Is there utility in the transtheoretical model? British Journal of Health Psychology, 14(2), 195-210.
Michie, Susan; Hardeman, Wendy; Fanshawe, Tom; Prevost, A. Toby; Taylor, Lyndsay; Kinmonth, Louise. Psychology Health, Jan2008, Vol. 23 Issue 1, p25-39, 15.
Russell, Kelly L. Bray, Steven R. (2010). Promoting Self-Determined Motivation for Exercise in Cardiac Rehabilitation: The Role of Autonomy Support. Rehabilitation Psychology. Vol. 55, No. 1, p 74-80.
Scholz, U. Schüz, B. Ziegelmann, J. Lippke, S. Schwarzer, R. (2008). Beyond behavioural intentions: Planning mediates between intentions and physical activity. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13(3), 479-494.
Sniehotta, F. (2009). Towards a theory of intentional behaviour change: Plans, planning, and self-regulation. British Journal of Health Psychology, 14(2), 261-273.

Webb, M. S. de Ybarra, D. Baker, E. A. Reis, I. M. Carey, M. P. (2010). Cognitive- behavioral therapy to promote smoking cessation among African American smokers: A randomized clinical trial.

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Understanding Behavior Change, Action Planning, and Coping Planning: A Review of the Literature

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The process of behavior change is complex, and involves a variety of factors. These factors include things such as environment, which can drastically affect the behavior change process. For example, going to a busy crowded gym to try a get in shape may eventually discourage you from going as the machines and such are constantly full. Motivation is another important factor when considering behavior change. Having a music instructor whose teaching ability is quite inadequate for example, will decrease motivation in a student to listen to what that teacher has to say. There are various interventions that can be used to assist one in changing behavior. Action and coping planning are two helpful strategies to consider when changing behavior. Action planning being taking charge and putting action into change rather than contemplating it. Coping planning is anticipating how to overcome obstacles during the change process. That is just one of the large varieties of behavioral interventions used in various situations.

Processes of Behavior Change

The changing of a specific behavior whether it is something health related, such as going to the gym on a regular basis, or even improving practicing habits playing an instrument, is a long process. The difference between simply thinking about changing a behavior and acting to change it are farther away than one would think. Varieties of factors are involved in the change process; one of the largest factors is environment. Sniehotta(2009) mentions that despite individual’s being able to make intentional behavior changes, they are largely determined by the constraints and consequences their environment produces. To counteract this, there have been various developments in the area of behavior planning, including new models to go by which can be used to assist an individual in their quest for behavior change.
One of these models that are relatively well known is the transtheoretical model (Armitage, 2009). This model can help “predict, explain, and ultimately change health behavior (Armitage, 2009)” through variety components. These consist of fourteen points that are split up in to three sub-categories. They are: stages of change, dependent variables, and independent variables. While all three are significant, stages of change has been looked at far more than the other stages to the point where it’s not worth mentioning them. Stages of change consist of precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action and maintenance (Prochaska, et al, 1994). Each stage follows after the other, going from thinking about change, preparing to change, taking action, and then maintaining that change. Various studies have used this model to prove its worth, most notably in changing poor health behaviors. In one study by Herzog and Blagg (2007), they used the model to assist smokers in changing their habits, and found positive results along with the smokers having an increase in motivation to quit throughout the program.
Urte et. Al. (2008) mention two main focuses of behavior change. These are action planning and coping planning. After an individual has the intention to change, they go through the volitional stage, which is the short stage between the intentions becoming changed into action. Once this transition is made one can progress into the action and coping planning stages. In action planning the “when, where, and how (Urte et al. 2008 pg481)” is determined, somewhat similar to the transtheoretical models stages of change. This involves setting rigid goals, such as “I will study for four hours tonight” with no escapes from the plan. This format of goal setting will lead one to change their behavior easier with no leniency in their routines. However, it has been shown that while action planning may be quite effective with changing simple behaviors, changing complex lifelong behaviors may prove difficult or unsuccessful in certain cases.
Coping planning is used for overcoming unplanned and expected obstacles in the behavior change process. An example of this may be that the weather outside is unsuitable for running so I may go run in a gym instead. This type of planning keeps potential planning mishaps from happening, and promotes the maintenance of that behavior. Once action planning is started, after a period of a few months coping tends to take over as the main plan and keeps one on track to their goal or maintaining it.

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Anti-Semitism and Hypocrisy in Chaucer’s Prioress’s Tale (Part 4)

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There are actually several layers, each progressively more concrete. God is highly abstract, Jesus less so. Mary, who is just a human being, is even more concrete. But even that is not enough. The prioress needs something she can touch. It is highly unlikely that the prioress fully grasps the concept of transubstantiation, but she clearly appreciates religious rituals. She advocates going through with the rituals, such as prayer, even if the person performing the ritual has absolutely no idea what it all really means. Her need for visuals to convey knowledge carries over into the discomforting violence of the final dozen stanzas. Not only is there the violent crime against the boy, and his supernatural singing, but also the retributive justice and dirge by the public and the boy’s mother over his death.

This odious murder of the little boy incites barbarous violence against the Jews. The prioress attempts to justify the wholesale execution of a large number of people though their often tenuous complicity in the heinous crime. The local magistrate gathers up the Jews, declaring:

“Yvel shal have that yvel wol deserve:”

Therfore with wilde hors he dide hem drawe,

And after that he heng hem by the lawe. (198–200)

The offending Jews are not only drawn by horses, but also hanged. More importantly, all of this is done in accordance with the law. The prioress already established that this region had a Christian ruler. It follows that the laws and punishments should reflect this Christian background. Christian theology is ostensibly based on love, which when consistently applied should not promote murder. Christ taught his subjects to “turn the other cheek” and love their “brothers. ” The prioress, in being both a woman and more specifically a nun, might reasonably be expected to be a pacifist. She is not; the outraged populace in her tale wants vengeance and they get it. A calm, reasoned approach to the murder (if such a thing is possible), would be to methodically determine whom to blame. With guilt established, perhaps even a Christian argument could be made to justify execution of those involved. Instead, the entire group is mercilessly slaughtered. What follows is treacle displays of mourning for the murdered boy, then a stanza of pure hypocrisy. The prioress offers a final prayer emphasizing, of all things, mercy: “That, of his mercy, God so merciable On us his grete mercy multiplye” (254–255). In only two lines, “mercy” appears three times. In one respect, the prioress is finally getting something right: Christianity does indeed teach mercy. However, they just had an opportunity to show mercy to the Jews, or at least humanity. Instead, they brutally murdered them. Once again, she is able to express the Christian ideas without even beginning to grasp what they mean. A request for mercy is not a meaningless string of words offered because social institutions say it’s the right time. It is a profound statement of humility before a person whose powers exceed your own or, in this case, before God Himself.

The Prioress’s Tale is one of brazen self-righteousness, gross ignorance of other cultures and religions. The title character is hopelessly solipsistic with no ability to look beyond her own carefully constructed fantasy world. As a result, she ends up blindly advocating a host of evils and lesser wrongs.

Bibliography

Besserman, Lawrence. “Ideology, Antisemitism, and Chaucer’s Prioress’s Tale. ”The Chaucer Review 36. 1 (2001) 48-72

Patterson, Lee. “‘The Living Witnesses of Our Redemption’: Martyrdom and Imitation in Chaucer’s Prioress’s Tale. ” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 31. 3 (2001) 507-560.

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Anti-Semitism and Hypocrisy in Chaucer’s Prioress’s Tale (Part 3)

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In so doing, she destroys any possibility of gaining new insight into the religion from which hers derived.

The prioress seeks to further validate her anti-Semitic views by associating Jews with Satan. As the boy sings Alma Redemptoris through the Jewish quarter, Satan whispers into the Jew’s ears. Evidently, Jews are close friends, or at least loyal subjects, of Satan. Indeed, the dark lord “hath in Jewes herte his wasps nest” (125). This is demeaning on several levels. Not only is there the obvious association with Satan himself, but apparently the very hearts of Jews are empty, sub-human shells. Love may dwell in Christian hearts, but Jews have only a wasp’s nest. Satan goes on to admonish the Jews for allowing the boy to sing his prayer against “oure lawes” (130). This is an inflammatory creation on the part of the prioress. The “oure” is slightly problematic; some lesser manuscripts read “youre. ” Either Satan is the lord of the Jews or he at least functions as a protector of their laws. In either case, the implications are the same. Jewish law, as conceived of by the prioress, is violently anti-Christian. By created this falsehood of mutual antipathy, she can better justify her own rabid anti-Semitism.

All of the evils in this tale stem from a lack of knowledge, or misinformation. Bad information ultimately stems from bad epistemology. Neither the prioress, nor any character in her stories, exhibits an understanding as to how to obtain legitimate, truthful knowledge—the kind from which progress flows. As a substitute for real knowledge, rationally ascertained and disseminated, the prioress relies on the emotional response of the audience to physical gore. Acting on direct orders from none other than Satan, the Jews conspired to kill the boy. They hired a murderer who grabs the boy on his way home from school and “kitte his throte, and in a pit him caste” (137). This highly sensational murder is told to incite a purely emotional reaction. There is nothing wrong with emotions, per se. Emotions serve as an automatic manifestation of our most sincere and innate values. However, they are not infallible. A misidentification of how a specific action applies to our values, or even of the values themselves, can result in the wrong emotional response. Emotions wield a strong power over us, but we are still fundamentally rational beings and we need not act on our emotions when reason tells us otherwise.

After the throat slitting, the tale quickly turns even more macabre and disturbing. The boy’s mother finds him and he sings the prayer loudly. Through divine intervention, he is able to overcome physical limitations. He tells the people, “Me thoghte she leyde a greyn upon my tonge” (228). The act of Mary extending the life of a fatally injured boy is theologically complex. How can someone live with a slit throat? How can that person sing? The “greyn” has no direct, logical connection to its effect. It is not a bandage or ointment. The “greyn” is not even placed that close to the wound. So what is the “greyn”? Communion wafers are placed on top of the tongue by the clergy in the Catholic Church. This “greyn” could be a literal grain or seed, or it could be a metonymy for a communion wafer. The prioress, despite her position of religious authority, operates on a very simplistic level regarding religion, just like the boy. She needs a concrete object present. The same principle applies to the sale of absolutions by a pardoner. It is too abstract to just say that by God’s grace the boy was allowed to stay alive a little longer.

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Anti-Semitism and Hypocrisy in Chaucer’s Prioress’s Tale (Part 2)

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But, the prioress is not concerned so much with the adherence to legitimate Christian principles but rather to the institution of the Catholic Church, of which she is a part. Her insecurities about her beliefs, a result of not thinking them over, result in her desperate need to cling to the institution. This explains her position as a prioress. She lives in her own cloistered world, leading a group of nuns who do not bother her with provocative or critical questions about the nature their religion. She is a shepherd so engrossed with the affairs of her own flock that she is incapable of understanding outsiders of any sort. Thus, the attack against the boy receives a sudden, too-broad and ultimately unthinking reaction in the tale.

The prioress goes further than mere childhood innocence; she makes the boy Christ-like. She calls the Jews the “cursed folk of Herodes” (140). This not-so-subtle epithet invokes the Biblical account of Christ’s birth and his escape from the infamous order by Herod to slay all the baby boys. The boy in this tale also suffers an untimely death for his Christianity, but at a much earlier age than Jesus. Nevertheless, the parallel between the two is still clearly present, fixed in the minds of the audience. The song itself also conjures associations between the boy and Christ. It was commonly sung during the Boy Bishop rituals, popular in England at the time, which coincided with the Mass of Holy Innocents. “In the Middle Ages, the Holy Innocents were traditionally understood as types of Christ, who was himself in turn often represented in late medieval religious writing and drama as a sacrificial child” (Patterson, 510). Thus, the boy’s Christian goodness is magnified to that of the ultimate exemplar, Christ Himself.

Having elevated the sacrificial victim to a quasi-divine status, the prioress continues her over-the-top tale by vilifying the Jews. She gives the setting as Asia Minor, a Muslim area. In the Middle Ages, Judaism and Islam were often conflated by the Christians of Western Europe. Both groups have darker skin and write using alphabets different from the Roman alphabet. To many of the less than well-traveled people of medieval England, the differences between Judaism and Islam were minor and, more importantly, irrelevant. After all, if Christianity is true, then other religions are necessarily false—at least in the popular view. The special status of the Jews, God’s “chosen people,” within a Christian culture was largely overlooked in the Middle Ages. The particular region she describes is ruled by a Christian, but with a Jewish quarter, sustained by the lord of that country “For foule usure and lucre of vileynye, Hateful to Crist and to his compaignye” (57–58). Medieval Catholic teachings forbade Christians from usury, but that did not mean the practice disappeared. Economic enterprise requires the lending of money—and people tend to be unwilling to lend money without any sort of benefit. In short, usury is a vital component of a healthy economy. The Church condemned a requirement of the society that sustained it. To have it both ways, they simply let Jews become the bankers. According to the prioress, this makes the Jews “hateful to Crist. ” This is blatant hypocrisy. The Christians condemned Jews for taking up a profession that they were simply unwilling to do themselves. This snap-judgment further reveals the Prioress’s own simplistic world-view. She uses inappropriate absolutes to describe religiosity: Christians are good; Jews are evil. What is not evident here is any attempt to understand Judaism or even Christ’s own comments regarding the Jews. She shuts out the Jews, immediately dismissing them as evil.

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Anti-Semitism and Hypocrisy in Chaucer’s Prioress’s Tale

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Through her words and actions, the prioress of Chaucer’s Prioress’s Tale makes it plainly evident that she is a hypocrite who does not understand her own religion. The prioress’s misconceptions about her own religion lead to an illogical condemnation of Jews, a people who could scarcely be found in England in Chaucer’s period. Her insecurities regarding her sex and confidence in the validity of her faith and also her close-mindedness prevent her from gaining any sort of meaningful knowledge of other religions and peoples. Instead, she tries to spread her bigotry and willful ignorance with an inflammatory version of a tale common in the 14th century. Her tale seeks to elevate Christian women, such as herself, by constant invocations to Mary and the denigration of Jews. Tearing down another group makes hers seem, by comparison, better. To that end, she spews vitriolic anti-Semitism in her ridiculously macabre tale.

To ensure outrage at the murder to come, and to set up her tale, the prioress first must establish the victim as a wholly sympathetic character. While no one doubts the boy’s innocence, the prioress goes to almost comic (and satirical? lengths to also establish his near inhuman virtue. After learning that the Alma Redemptorisis about Mary, whom the boy and prioress both venerate with obsession, he declares:

“Now certes, I wol do my diligence

To conne it al, er Cristemasse be went.

Though that I for my prymer shal be shent,

And shal be beten thryes in an houre,

I wol it conne, oure Lady for to honoure. ” (105–109)

This sort of dedication may be expected from a member of a religious order, such as the prioress, who clearly approves of such a sacrifice. Indeed, the boy’s willingness to suffer multiple beatings for failure to study his primer could even be described as self-flagellation. The problem is that this boy is only seven years old. No amount of indoctrination is going to make a child that young eagerly accept physical abuse in exchange for the opportunity to memorize “by rote” (88) a song. He is not even going to truly study the song and its depths. How could he? He learned of the song by hearing other boys singing it. His peers, even the older ones, have only a superficial understanding of the prayers. So, too, does the prioress. Later on, the boy survives, temporarily at least, a vicious attack. The boy explains to an abbot that “for the worship of his moder dere Yet may I singe O Alma laude and clere” (220–221). Does it matter that he lacks all meaningful comprehension of the prayer? Not according to the prioress. He can mimic the sounds of the prayer and he worships Mary. That is more than sufficient for her. She doesn’t understand the prayer much better than he does; by her standard, he has done all that he needs to. After all, “in Chaucer’s day you were ignorant, or mad, or demonic to think that God did not exist, or could be anything other than the ultimate reality” (Besserman, 60). The laity did not need to spend much time contemplating metaphysics and ethics. However, a religion that lasts requires a careful and thorough examination of its fundamentals. Incoherent mysticism can gain an ephemeral following, but for a religion to survive a millennium, smart people must dedicate time and energy to the development of cohesive, internally consistent theological concepts and tenets. The prioress fails to comprehend the complexities of Catholicism. She reduces Christian virtue to rote memory of prayers. While such memory work is at least valuable in a Christian context, it is not fundamental to the religion.

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Risks of Outsourcing Computer Software and Hardware support

January 13th, 2011 No comments

Outsourcing is when a company turns to external resources at other companies to do tasks they once did internally. Outsourcing may be done to draw on external expertise, such as hiring legal specialists or certified auditors. However, outsourcing is frequently done to save money by shifting work to companies that gain efficiencies from large scale by being specialized. This outsourcing creates risks for firms that outsource software and hardware support.

1. Loss of control

Server support is now determined by both the policies of the outsourced firm and by corporate policy. Employees of the outsourcing firm may follow their own policies first and your policies second. Outsourcing firms can dictate service level agreements and penalties if standards are not met, but they cannot control how work is performed. Companies that outsource work must also cede control of contractors to the managers who direct their activities.

2. Added feedback delays

Instead of calling an internal support staffer to resolve a problem, customers must call an outsourcing firm for help. This frequently results in calls being received by a first level technician following a script. If the problem requires advanced skill sets, there is additional delay in transferring the call to a subject matter expert or putting in a ticket for them to call a user back. The need to pass through an intermediary adds delays to customer support. If problem does require the subject matter expert, they may need to travel to the site to resolve the problem. This delay may not occur when in house staff can walk down the hall and solve the problem.

3. Loss of expertise

Employees of an outsourced firm are rarely as knowledgeable as internal staff who have worked with specific hardware or software applications. Even if the internal staff are available, they may be reassigned to other areas or may not be available when outsourcers come to answer calls. If the internal experts are transferred to the outsourcing firm, ether as part of a realignment or a reorganization, the risk that they will seek yet another employment opportunity arises. There is also the risk that experts who are sent to the outsourcing firm may be terminated by the new company once they have trained lower paid technicians to do the most common tasks they performed.

4. Loss of accountability

When an internal employee performs poorly, that individual can face internal corporate consequences. This can include reassignment or firing. When an outsourced technician performs poorly, the outsourcing firm can solve the problem by assigning a different technician as the first solution. Changing account managers may also be offered as a solution. The worst case scenario for the outsourcer is that you take back the IT functions that you outsourced, but for which you may have lost your key personnel or licenses. This causes a loss of accountability when outsourcers do not perform to prior service levels.

5. Loss of intellectual property

When data is processed by an outsourcer, there is an additional risk of data loss due to the extra processing steps or outside hands and eyes that perform the work. Another risk is that outsourcers may take processes learned from interacting with staff and transferring those lessons learned to their other customers or using those best practices themselves; this may not be a direct effort to steal intellectual property but the spread of best practices to the competition does not help the outsourcer. While outsourcing may save money, the cost can be higher than it seems.

Categories: business, computers, globalization Tags:

Is Hair Cell Regeneration in Humans Possible? (Part 2)

September 5th, 2010 Comments off

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2. Hume, Oesterlie, Raible, Rubel, & Stone. (2010). Inner ear hair cell regeneration. Virginia Merrill Bloedel Hearing Research Center. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http:// depts. washington. edu/hearing/InnerEarHairCellRegeneration. php

3. Izumikawa, M. Minoda, R. Kawamoto, K. Abrashkin, K. Swiderski, D. Dolan, D. et al.

(2005). Auditory hair cell replacement and hearing improvement by Atoh1 gene therapy in deaf mammals. Nature Medicine, 11(3), 271-276.

4. Kopke, R. Jackson, R. Geming, L. Rasmussen, M. Hoffer, M. Frenz, D. et al. (2001). Growth factor treatment enhances vestibular hair cell renewal and results in improved vestibular. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98(10), 5886.

5. Matsui, J. & Ryals, B. (2005). Hair cell regeneration: An exciting phenomenon … But will restoring hearing and balance be possible? Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 42187-198. Doi:10. 1682/JRRD. 2005. 01. 0008.

6. Oregon Health & Sciences University. (2008). Treatment for hearing loss? Scientists grow hair cells involved in hearing. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from www. sciencedaily. com/releases/2008/08/080830005613. htm

7. Ozeki, H. Oshima, K. Senn, P. Kurihara, H. & Kaga, K. (2007). Development and regeneration of hair cells. Acta Oto-Laryngologica (Supplement), 12738-44. Doi: 10. 1080/03655230701597200

8. Rubel, E. (2005). Hair cell regeneration: look into the future. Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 117(4), 2377-2377.

9. Stone, J. Choi, Y. Wooley, S. Yamashita, H. Rubel, E. (1999). Progenitor cell cycling during hair cell regeneration in the vestibular and auditory epithelia of the chick. Journal of Neurocytology, 28, 863-876.

10. Stone, J. & Rubel, E. (2000). Cellular studies of auditory hair cell regeneration in birds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(22), 11714.

References Continued

11. Walshe, P. Walsh, M. & McConn Walsh, R. (2003). Hair cell regeneration in the inner ear: a review. Clinical Otolaryngology & Allied Sciences, 28(1), 5-13. Doi:10. 1046/j. 1365-2273. 2003. 00658. x.

12. White, P. Doetzlhofer, A. Yun Shain, L. Groves, A. & Segil, N. (2006). Mammalian cochlear supporting cells can divide and trans-differentiate into hair cells. Nature, 441(7096), 984-987. Doi: 10. 1038/nature04849.

13. Viastarakos, P. Nikolopoulos, T. Tavoulari, E. Papacharalambous, G. (2008). Sensory cell regeneration and stem cells: what we have already achieved in the management of deafness. Otology & Neurotology, 29(6): 758-68.

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